Shades of Praguian Yellow

Ľudovít Štúr was born on 29 October 1815 in Uhrovec in the Kingdom of Hungary (in the similar dwelling the place Alexander Dubček was later born) as the next baby of Samuel and Anna Štúr. He was baptized in the Evangelical Lutheran church in Uhrovec. He acquired his essential education, like the knowledge of Latin, from his father Samuel, who was a instructor. From 1827–1829, he analyzed at Győr, the place he attended a lower grammar school. There he improved his knowledge of history, and German, Greek and Hungarian languages. These scientific studies provoked his admiration of Pavel Jozef Šafárik, Ján Kollár and Jiří Dobrovsky. In 1829, he made a decision to modify school.

From 1829–1836, Ľudovít Štúr analyzed at the prestigious Lutheran Lýceum (preparatory superior school and college or university) in Pressburg and grew to become a member of the Czech-Slav Modern society, which stimulated his fascination in all Slav nations. There was a renowned Office of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature of the old Professor Juraj Palkovič at the school, the only this sort of division at a Protestant school of higher education in the 19th century Hungary.

In 1831, Ľudovít Štúr wrote his first poems. From January–September 1834, he briefly interrupted his scientific studies thanks to absence of finances and returned to Zayugróc, the place he labored as scribe with Depend Károly Zay. Afterwards that 12 months he resumed his scientific studies, was lively in the historical and literary circle of the Czech-Slav Modern society, was responsible for the correspondence with users of the Modern society, gave personal classes in the dwelling of a merchant in Pressburg (right now: Bratislava), taught youthful students at the Lýceum and founded get hold of with important foreign and Czech students. On 17 December 1834, he was elected secretary of the Czech-Slav Modern society at the Lýceum.

In May possibly 1835, Ľudovít Štúr persuaded Jozef Hurban to grow to be concerned in the Slovak countrywide movement. Also that 12 months, he was co-editor of the Plody (“Fruits”) almanac, a compilation of the very best functions of the users of the Czech-Slav Modern society, like poems of Štúr’s. He grew to become vice-president of the Czech-Slav Modern society, instructing more mature students at the Lyceum the history of the Slavs and their literatures.

In 1836, Štúr wrote a letter to the important Czech historian František Palacký, the place he stated that the Czech language utilised by the Protestants in Upper Hungary had grow to be incomprehensible for the common Slovaks, and proposed the generation of a unified Czechoslovak language, presented that the Czechs would be prepared to use some Slovak words – just like Slovaks would officially take some Czech words. But the Czech were being unwilling to take this, and so Štúr and his good friends made a decision to introduce a wholly new Slovak language standard alternatively.[quotation desired] On 24 April 1836, the renowned journey to Devín Castle (Dévény, now aspect of Bratislava) by the users of the Slovak countrywide movement took location, led by Štúr as the vice-president of Czech-Slav Modern society. The starting of his group’s comprehensive attempts on behalf of countrywide consciousness are connected to this go to to the ruins of Devín Castle, woven about with legends of the earlier with reminders of Fantastic Moravia. The users of the Czech-Slav Modern society swore here to be legitimate to the countrywide bring about, deciding to vacation around Upper Hungary to drum up aid for their suggestions. At the castle, they also adopted supplemental Slavic names (e.g., Jozef Hurban grew to become Jozef Miloslav Hurban, etcetera.).

From 1836–1838, as deputy (non-stipendiary assistant) for Professor Palkovič, Chair of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature at the Lyceum, the place he was formerly college student, he taught history of Slavic literature. He continued to create poetry and under his leadership, the number of users of the Czech-Slav Modern society was continually growing. In this 12 months, a poem of Štúr’s was revealed in printed form for the first time: Óda na Hronku (“An ode to Hronka”). In April 1837, the Czech-Slav Modern society was prohibited thanks to college student commotion at the Lyceum. 1 7 days later Štúr founded the Institute of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature, in which the things to do of the Czech-Slav Modern society continued. In that 12 months he continued to create article content for newspapers and journals, like Tatranka, Hronka, Květy (Czech), Časopis českého musea, Danica (Croatian) and Tygodnik literacki (Polish).

From 1838–1840, he attended the (Protestant) University of Halle in Germany, the place he analyzed linguistics, history and philosophy. He was influenced by the functions of the German philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Johann Gottfried Herder. Also in the course of this period of time, his poetic cycle Dumky večerní (“Evening feelings” penned in Czech) was revealed in the Czech journal Květy. He remaining Pressburg for Halle in September 1838. On his way to Halle, he spent much more than 1 thirty day period in Prague surrounded by Czech patriots. In the spring of 1839, Štúr manufactured a lengthy journey to the Upper and Reduce Lusatia in Germany (inhabited by Slavs) and acquired in touch with the Slavs there. He wrote the short travelogue Cesta do Lužic vykonaná na jar 1839 (“A journey to Lusatia manufactured in the spring of 1839”), penned in Czech and revealed in the Czech journal Časopis českého musea.

In 1840, he returned to Bratislava through Prague and Hradec Králové (Königgrätz), the place he spent some time in the dwelling of the publisher Jan Pospíšil. From October, he was when once again operating as deputy for Professor Palkovič at the Office of the Czecho-Slav Language and Literature at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum, instructing courses of grammar and Slav history, and continuing his things to do at the Institute of Czechoslovak language.

In the course of 1841–1844, Štúr was co-editor of Palkovič’s literary journal Tatranka. In 1841, he started out things to do aimed at publishing a Slovak political newspaper. He wrote defensive and polemic texts as effectively as his Starý a nový věk Slovákov (“The old and the new age of the Slovaks”), penned in Aged Czech and revealed in 1935 (in Slovak only in 1994). On 16 August 1841, Štúr and his good friends ascended Kriváň (a symbolic mountain in Slovak culture), an occasion that is now commemorated by annual excursions to its summit. In 1842, he initiated the first Slovenský prestolný prosbopis, a Slovak petition to the Royal Court in Vienna demanding the federal government to quit countrywide persecutions by the Hungarians in Upper Hungary. His application for a licence to publish a newspaper was turned down in the similar 12 months.

On two February 1843, in Pressburg, Štúr and his good friends made a decision to codify the Slovak language standard utilised right now, centered on central Slovak dialects – a popular language that would unify all Slovaks talking quite a few distinctive dialects. From 26–29 June 1843, a particular committee achieved to investigate from the Institute of Czechoslovak Language at the Lyceum, also interrogating Štúr. Štúr was forced to go away his posture at the Institute and 22 students supporting Štúr also remaining the institution and started out their scientific studies at Evangelical lyceum in Levoča (Lőcse).

In July 1843, his defensive perform Die Beschwerden und Klagen der Slaven in Ungarn über die gesetzwidrigen Übergriffe der Magyaren (“The complaints and grievances of the Slavs in Hungary about the unlawful misfeasances of the Hungarians”), which editorial workplaces in the 19th century Hungary had refused to publish, was revealed in Leipzig, Germany. From 11–16 July 1843, at the parish dwelling of J. M. Hurban in Hlboké, the leaders of the Slovak countrywide movement – Štúr, J. M. Hurban and M.M. Hodža – agreed on how to codify the new Slovak language standard and how to introduce it to the general public. On 17 July 1843, they visited Ján Hollý, an important writer and representative of the more mature Bernolák Slovak language standard, in Dobrá Voda and educated him about their options. On 11 October 1843, whilst the committee did not uncover nearly anything unlawful about Štúr’s things to do, Štúr was ordered to quit lecturing and was eradicated from the functionality of deputy for Prof. Palkovič. However, Štúr continued to give lectures. On 31 December 1843, he was definitively deprived of the functionality of deputy for Prof. Palkovič. As a outcome, in March 1844, 22 students remaining Pressburg in protest thirteen of them went to review at the Evangelical lyceum in the city of Levoča. 1 of the supporting students was Janko Matuška, who by this opportunity developed a hymnical music Nad Tatrou sa blýska, which later grew to become official anthem of the Slovak republic.

From 1843–1847, Štúr labored as a personal scientist. In 1844, he wrote Nárečja slovenskuo alebo potreba písaňja v tomto nárečí (“The Slovak dialect or the requirement to create in this dialect”). On 19 May possibly 1844, a next Slovenský prestolný prosbopis was sent to Vienna, but had small influence. But in 1844 other Slovak authors (normally Štúr’s students) started out to use the new Slovak language standard. On 27 August, he participated in the founding conference of the Slovak affiliation Tatrín, the first nation-huge affiliation.

On one August 1845, the first situation of Slovenskje národňje novini (“Slovak Nationwide Newspaper” revealed till 9 June 1848) was revealed. 1 7 days later, its literary addendum Orol Tatranský (“The Tatra Eagle” revealed till six June 1848) was also revealed. In this newspaper, penned in the new Slovak language, he little by little shaped a Slovak political application. He centered this on the principle that the Slovaks were being 1 nation and that they as a result had a ideal to their personal language, culture, schools, and specifically political autonomy in Hungary. The projected expression of this autonomy was to be a Slovak Food plan. Also that 12 months, his brochure Das neunzehnte Jahrhundert und der Magyarismus (“The 19th century and Magyarism”), penned in German, was revealed in Vienna.

In 1846, Štúr acquired to know the yeoman Ostrolúcky household in Zemianske Podhradie (Nemesváralja), who later aided him to grow to be a deputy in the Hungarian Food plan in Pressburg. He also fell in really like with Adela Ostrolúcka. In addition, his textbooks Nárečja Slovenskuo alebo potreba písaňja v tomto nárečí (1844) and Nauka reči Slovenskej (“The Theory of the Slovak language”) were being revealed in Pressburg. In Nárečia Slovenskuo, he refused Kollár’s thought of only four Slavic tribes (Russians, Poles, Czechs and Southern Slavs) and shown reasons for the introduction of the new language, which is centered on central Slovak dialects and takes advantage of phonetic spelling. In Nauka reči Slovenskej he defined the grammar of the new language standard. In the similar 12 months, the upset Kollár and his followers revealed the compilation perform „Hlasové o potřebě jednoty spisovného jazyka pro Čechy, Moravany a Slováky“ (“Voices in favour of the requirement of a unified literary language of the Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks”), penned in Czech.

In August 1847, at the 4th conference of the Tatrín affiliation in Čachtice, Catholics and Protestants “definitively agree to use only the freshly codified Štúr language standard”. On thirty October 1847, he grew to become a deputy for the city of Zvolen (Zólyom) in the Hungarian Food plan in Pressburg. From 17 November 1847 to thirteen March 1848, he gave 5 important speeches at the Food plan, in which he expected the abolishment of serfdom in Hungary, the introduction of civil rights and the use of the Slovak language for instructing in elementary schools. The Food plan achieved only till 11 April 1848 thanks to the 1848 revolution.

On one April 1848 in Vienna, Štúr and his colleagues organized the Slavic Congress of Prague. On 20 April 1848, he arrived in Prague on the invitation of the Czech J. V. Frič, the place he won the aid of Czech students that were being users of the affiliation Slávie relating to his makes an attempt to enforce the Slovak language. On thirty April 1848, he initiated the institution of “Slovanská lipa” (Slavic lime) in Prague – an affiliation aiming at endorsing the mutual cooperation of the Slavs.

In May possibly 1848, he was 1 of the authors of the official petition Žiadosti slovenského národa (“Needs of the Slovak Nation”). The Žiadosti slovenského národa was publicly declared in Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš, with Janko Francisci as the reader. In it, the Slovaks demanded autonomy in Hungary, a proportional illustration in the Hungarian Assembly, the generation of a Slovak Food plan to administer their personal area, the place Slovak would grow to be the official language and educational institutes from elementary schools to universities would use Slovak. They also named for universal suffrage and democratic rights – e.g., freedom of the push and general public assembly. They requested that peasants be introduced from serfdom and that their lands be returned to them. But on 12 May possibly 1848, the Hungarian federal government issued a warrant on the leaders of the Slovak movement: Štúr, Hurban and Hodža. The persecuted Štúr arrived in Prague on 31 May possibly 1848. On two June 1848 he participated in the Slavic Congress there.

On 19 June 1848 he went to Zagreb, Croatia, since the Slavic Congress was interrupted by combating in Prague, and gets an editor of the Croatian journal Slavenski Jug. With economical aid from some Serbs, he and J. M. Hurban started out to get ready an rebellion from the Hungarian federal government. The “Slovak Uprising” occurred among September 1848 and November 1849. In September 1848, Štúr travelled to Vienna and participated in the preparations for the Slovak armed rebellion. On 15–16 September 1848, the Slovak Nationwide Council, the supreme Slovak political and military organisation consisting of Štúr, Hurban and Hodža (as politicians) and the Czechs B. Bloudek, F. Zach and B. Janeček (as military specialists), was developed in Vienna. On 19 September 1848, in Myjava, the Slovak Nationwide Council declared independence from the Hungarian federal government and named on the Slovak nation to start out an armed rebellion. But the Council only managed to command the surrounding Slovak area.

Štúr, Hurban and others achieved in Prague on seven October 1848 to go over further more proceedings concerning the rebellion. On returning to Vienna in November, Štúr and Slovak volunteers – on 1 of the so-named Volunteer Strategies – traversed northern Hungary from Čadca (Csaca) up to Prešov (Eperjes) till March in 1849. On 20 March 1849, he participated in a deputation that visited the Austrian king, in the Czech city of Olomouc, presenting him demands concerning the Slovak nation. From March till June, Štúr – together with Hurban, Hodža, Bórik, Chalúpka and others – negotiated in Vienna about a alternative to the Slovak demands. But on 21 November 1849, the Slovak volunteer corps was officially demobilized in Pressburg, and the let down Štúr retreated to his parents’ home in Uhrovec.

The later many years of Štúr’s existence noticed him engage in further more scientific and literary perform. In the autumn of 1850 he attempted but unsuccessful to obtain a licence to publish a Slovak countrywide newspaper. In December of that 12 months he participated in a deputation to Vienna concerning Slovak schools and the Tatrín affiliation. A number of individual tragedies also occurred in the course of his later existence. His brother Karol died on thirteen January 1851. Štúr moved into the dwelling of Karol’s household in Modra (close to Pressburg) to treatment for his 7 little ones he lived there under law enforcement supervision. On 27 July 1851, his father died his mother moved to Trenčín (Trencsén).

In October 1851 he participated in meetings in Pressburg concerning a reform of the codified Slovak language standard. The reform, involving primarily a changeover from the phonetic spelling to an etymological 1, was later released by M. M. Hodža and Martin Hattala in 1851–1852, but Štúr, between others, also participated in the preparations. The outcome of this reform was the Slovak language standard nonetheless utilised right now, with minimal adjustments.

In Modra in 1852, Štúr finished his essay O národních písních a pověstech plemen slovanských (“On countrywide music and myths of Slavic kins”), penned in Czech and revealed in Bohemia the subsequent 12 months. In addition he wrote his important philosophic e-book Das Slawenthum und die Welt der Zukunft (“The Slavdom and the planet of the upcoming”), penned in German, revealed in Russian in 1867 and 1909 (revealed in German in 1931 in Slovak in 1993). Amid other items, he recapitulated there the gatherings that brought the Slovaks in their disconsolate scenario at that time and prompt as a alternative to cooperate with Russia, as a result fundamentally passing from his Slovak countrywide notion to pan-Slavism.

In 1853, his platonic girlfriend, Adela, died in Vienna on 18 March. He also went to take treatment of his sick mother in Trenčín, just before she died on 28 August 1853. The only compilation of his poetry, Spevy a piesne (“Singings and music”) was also revealed in Pressburg that 12 months. On 11 May possibly 1854, he held a speech at the unveiling of the Ján Hollý monument (Ján Hollý having died in 1849) in Dobrá Voda he had also penned a poem in honour of that male.

On 22 December 1855, Štúr inadvertently shot and wounded himself in the course of a hunt close to Modra. In the final times of his existence, he was primarily supported by his good friend Ján Kalinčiak. On 12 January 1856, Ľudovít Štúr died in Modra. A countrywide funeral was held there in his honour.

Posted by The Shy Photographer (Timido) on 2013-07-16 11:06:34

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