Education, is a modern word, which is derived from the Latin word ‘educase’, means to nourish, to cause to grow (Patel: 1991 : viii). Education also prevails in illiterate societies, where it is imparted orally and by mass behavior. A member of primitive society learns to earn his livelihood, to do good works, to obey spiritual beings and also superstitions etc from the elders of the society and bind by its laws and regulations. These are the education for them. We the modern people do mean “education as reading and writing. This is also true. By modern education a person can able to increase his knowledge and expand his vision and avail the fruits or development. Hence modern education can play the role of “Catalyst” in bringing sea changes in the sphere of social, political, economic fields. One of the important reasons for failure of development activities in the society by various developmental agendas is the prevalence of acute illiteracy and ignorance, combined with superstitions among the rural masses. Hence to ward off economic backwardness, social deprivation spreading of education is regarded as one of the most effective and forward-looking instruments (Patel: 1991:26). Another reason of failure of education is superstition among the tribal. Superstitions like “reading would make their eyes drop out of their sockets” etc. is also responsible for not spreading of education, so no remarkable progress could be achieved within next 10 years (Behera : 1984:76). Accordingly O.J. Millman, a Baptist Missionary set up a school in 1914 at Gudripadi near G.Udayagiri (Boal : 1963: 61). As Government experienced, acute caste discrimination prevailing among the students as well as parents, the Govt. was forced to set up separate schools for ST and SC students. Lord Dalhousie, the then Viceroy of British India appointed Mr. Charles Wood who was the Chairman of Board of Controll on 19th July 1853 to review the progress of education in India and to suggest way-out for its improvement and to frame new laws and regulations. Accordingly, he had submitted his report in the year 1854, which was known as Woods’ Dispatch. As such post of Director of Public Instructions was created in Bombay, Bengal and in Madras presidency
exclusively to look after development of education. As suggested in Wood’s Dispatch, the medium of instruction should be in mother language. Another Commission was also set up for reformation and development of education in the year 1882, known as Hunter Commission. Lord Curzon organized an all India conference in the year 1901 at Simla to review the progress and to find out faults in education, which was the first conference in India in the history of education. The proceedings of the said conference were published in 1904, which was known as Curzon’s Proclamation. That proclamation was an important document where emphasis was given regarding Syllabus, appointment of teachers and monetary assistance to schools and the importance of the provincial Governments to promote mass education. Administrative reformation law by Montague Chelmsford was published in the year 1919, where complete responsibility was laid down for education on provincial Governments. Hence Education Act of Madras Presidency was framed in 1920. Accordingly financial assistance was provided with to schools regularly and special responsibility was also given to District Boards and Local Boards. Again Hartog Commission was set up in 1929 where emphasis was given to promote mass education and to eradicate wastage and stagnation problem Christian Missionaries also took an important role for development of education in backward classes of this district. Missionaries also created awareness among the tribal towards education. Schools were also set up for ST and SC students by tribal Welfare department of Government after independence. Secondly, ignorance and superstitions play a major set back for spread of education in the district. People of the remote area are superstitious and addicted to blind beliefs. So they do not understand the value of education. Thirdly, a vital reason for the drop out problem of tribal students is their prevailing cultural process and life style, which hardly creates conducive environment for spreading of education.
The poverty of tribal people doesn’t permit them to keep clean their home environment. They don’t get nutritious food. So tribal children often fall ill. The parents could not treat them timely due to economic scarcity. So they suffer for a long period. During suffering the child remains absent from school and after recovering from illness he loses his appetite for study. However there are few other reasons, which may also be responsible for drop-out
The tribal are the children of nature and their lifestyle is conditioned by the eco-system. India due to its diverse ecosystems has a wide variety of tribal population. Tribes people constitute 8.14% of the total population of the country, numbering 84.51 million (2001 Census). There are 697 tribes notified by the Central Government under Article 342 of the Indian Constitution with certain tribes being notified in more than one State. More than half the Scheduled Tribe population is concentrated in the States of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhandand Gujarat whereas in Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Pondicherry and Chandigarh no community has been notified as a Scheduled Tribe. Due to isolation, unawareness and exploitation tribes in India facing economic and social problems. They live generally in inhospitable terrain where productivity of soil is low and their hamlets are found in forest areas along with the hill streams., India has the largest concentration of tribal population in the world .A tribe is a group comprising families, alone, or generation having its own customs, occupying a specific geographic territory and being independence of or having little contact with the dominant national society of the country in which they live..Tribals of our country (India) resides in such a territory, which is marked by the presence of hills, forest, islands, mountains, seacoasts etc. They live in a special geographical territory. That is why, some scholars see tribe as a territorial group. Tribals have to face a number of problems due to their isolated residences situated in remote areas. But they are closely and emotionally related to their lands and forest. There are no communications facilities between the various isolated tribal group as well as between the tribal and the world at large. They accept all outsiders in their territory that create more problem than benefits to the tribal communities. Due to exploitation from various stakeholders tribals are now facing a lot of problems .For promoting the welfare of schedule tribes and for rising the level of administration of schedules and tribal areas to the state level, Article 275 of the constitution provides grants in aid from consolidated fund of India to states for implementation of developmental programmes. And the article lies down as a Directive Principle of State Policy that the State should promote, with special care, the education and economic interest of the weaker sections. The 10th Five Year Plan envisages a slightly different approach in Kerala. As far as Tribals development is concerned Tribals own neighborhood groups [Oorukoottams] are formed as basic units for the formulation and implementation of TSP and other Tribals Development Programmes. A new approach and strategies for the sustainable development of tribals in Kerala. In view of this the following suggestions are made. Top most priority should be given to elimination of poverty and reduction of unemployment among the tribals. Majority of the tribal population does not still enjoy the basic standards of Good life. Elimination of poverty requires macro as well as micro strategies. For this there have to be separate component plan for Scheduled Tribes and the disabled including family specific plans for improving quality of life as well as protecting and upgrading the land resources, value addition to the non-timber Forest Produce, high quality education, proper health, social security support etc. No conventional institutional options have to be tried out in the case of education, health, and economic development and so on where NGO’s with good track record could play a positive role. Preservation of tribal culture and fostering of their traditional knowledge have to be ensured hand in hand with their empowerment and all round socio-economic development. The Draft Comprehensive Master Plan prepared by the Government should be implemented in a time bound manner with greater emphasis on the primitive tribal groups with stress on Education; Land based Development, Implementation of Protective measures with added legal support etc. It is commitment of the State Government to distribute land to all landless tribals and to rehabilitate them in a phased manner and to help them to sustain their land. High priority should be given to the construction of Houses, electrification, Drinking Water, Sanitation facilities etc. The future tribal educational programmes would aim at primary and secondary educational facilities to all ST students through Institutions like MRS, centre of excellence, etc. Strengthening of pre-primary education with adequate nutritional care, merit up gradation programmes for equipping the ST students for appearing various Entrance Examinations and Civil Services Examinations, more emphasis on technical education including Information Technology, revision of mess charges on the tribal hostels etc., are major strategies proposed. The priority / thrust areas envisaged for the future Tribal Development are:
. Provision of minimum needs to the poor STs aimed at systematic human resource development so as to enable the youths to seek employment., All landless tribals / marginal farmers among the tribals are to be provided with cultivable land depending on availability and implement sustainable development programmes.; Micro enterprises would be promoted among tribal women through Kudumbashree.; Tribal Sub-Plan programmes will be integrated with anti-poverty sub-plan. ;Socio-Economic development programme for the benefit of poorest of the poor to bring them above poverty line.; Ensuring of high quality education to tribal students.; Pre-primary education and residential education will be strengthened further;. The existing tuition scheme will be modified to cater to the needs of all tribal students; Programmes for assisting dropouts and improving enrolment will be formulated; All Houseless families will be given houses in a phased manner.;. The rate of Scholarships [Lump sum grant / stipend etc] will be revised frequently; The problems of tribal families living within forest areas will be solved in collaboration with forest department.; Health care facilities will be strengthened by improving existing Health Extension Programmes in tribal areas tie-up with Health Department;. High priority for the completion of pre-metric hostels and improving of their infrastructure facilities and revision of mess charges etc. Massive awareness and literacy programmes with involvement of NGOs will be organised in the tribal areas; Programmes aimed at improving the brilliance of talented ST students will be formulated and implemented.; Training programmes such as IT Training will be arranged for the tribal students and programmes for ensuring jobs for tribals in the IT sector will be formulated.; The participation of the tribals in the industrial sector, even in the small scale and traditional sector is virtually nil. To change this situation suitable strategies can be formulated, the socio-economic conditions of the communities like Adiya, Paniya, Primitive Tribes, Hill Pulayan, Malapandaram etc., are very pathetic. In view of this specific, exclusive programmes can be chalked out for the development of these communities.,The problems of the families living in tribal rehabilitation projects like Sugandhagiri, Pookot Dairy Project, Attapady Cooperative farming society etc., will be solved with the participation of these families., It is proposed to give Health Insurance coverage to all backward tribal families in a phased manner., Remoteness is one hurdle, which prevents the overall and comprehensive development of tribals. This eludes the tribals from the infrastructural needs such as road, drinking water, electrification, hospital facilities, educational facilities etc. A comprehensive plan can be formulated to solve these problems.
.Plan State Schemes
,Schemes for providing better educational facilities to bright ST students., Bharath /Kerala Darshan programme to ST Students, Post -metric hostels for Tribal Students., Training On Information Technology, Post-Metric Scholarship, Vocational Training Institutes, Award of Research Fellowship in various aspects of Tribal Development, Up gradation of merits of ST students, Special Incentive …