One hundred and fifteen a long time in the past, a scholarly group of males produced the Report of the Committee of 10. The Report of the Committee of 10 was a in depth document detailing the spirit and substance of secondary school schooling. Twenty 5 a long time later, in 1918, the Committee’s extensive and cohesive report was refuted by the Division of the Interior Bureau of Training in a proclamation titled Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education. Even though not overtly mentioned, the Cardinal Ideas was a contested reaction and re-route to the Report of the Committee of 10. Though the Committee sought to help and empower all college students by means of schooling, the Cardinal Ideas aimed to practice boys and women in prescribed roles and set values that would perpetuate the status quo. This post will explore the polarity in between the Committee of 10 and the Cardinal Ideas as a contest in between educating the student, and education the student.
The Committee of 10 required to enlighten the “immature head of the school student”, (J.M. Taylor, 1894, p. 194) specifically, both boys and women, with an schooling that would last a lifetime. The Committee aimed to do this by means of a “continuity of research”. This “continuity of research” would build in two strategies. First, the “school student” would acquire an in depth schooling in 9 “principal fields of information” and their respective auxiliary subjects. (The Committee of 10: Primary Report, Segment forty six, 1893) Next, the Committee owning a issue for a student’s complete schooling and understanding only a tiny proportion of college students would remain to the conclude of secondary education at eighteen a long time of age, required also to have this continuity of research start in the elementary grades with the introduction to the 9 “principal fields of information”. For the Committee, it was vital to build “all psychological patterns, which the grownup will surely need …before the age of fourteen.” (The Committee of 10: Primary Report, Segment 16) Finally, the Committee of 10 believed that educating the student meant opening the intellect to considered and information. (The Committee of 10: Primary Report, Sections forty six – 50) The Committee believed that this improvement of the intellect was the major goal of schooling.
In reaction to the Committee’s see of schooling, the Cardinal Ideas boldly retorted “its protest against any and all ideas” of the Committee of Ten’s “formalism and sterility” because it resulted in “divorcing vocation and social-civic schooling.” (Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education, Chapters V – VII, 1918) The writers of the Cardinal Ideas offered 7 principles that were supposed to re-manage secondary school schooling from the Committee’s intellectualism to “vocation” and “social- civic schooling”. These 7 Cardinal Ideas would swap formalized, developmental tutorial information with education in lifestyle responsibilities, and, ethical values for boys and women.
By eradicating pedagogy and curriculum that would let college students to feel in the abstract and swap this with education in concrete lifestyle competencies, the writers of the Cardinal Ideas hoped to preserve and maintain the current American economy and democracy. A boy was to be equipped with the potential “to secure a livelihood for himself and all those dependent on him…” (Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education, Basic principle four Vocation, Segment seven) A female was to be properly trained in the “family arts…because of their importance to the female herself and to many others whose welfare will be directly in her keeping.” (Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education, Basic principle 3, Deserving property membership, Segment six) With boys and women properly trained to hire their appropriate places in culture, it was anticipated that the American economy would prosper.
Of equivalent importance in secondary school instruction, was the immersion of boys and women in ethical values. These values were anticipated to “permeate the overall school –principals, instructors, and pupils” this infusion of ethical values would shape the major component wanted in a democratic culture, specifically, “Ethical character”. (Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education, Basic principle seven, Ethical character, Sections 9 & 10) For the writers of the Cardinal Ideas, devoid of the 7 cardinal principles, secondary education was frivolous and wasteful due to the fact it did not put together boys and women for “the needs of lifestyle”. (Ravitch, 2000. p. 129)
Though the Committee of 10 was intent on intellectualizing the student the Cardinal Ideas was preset on education the student. The Committee of 10 believed, provided an schooling, a student would build the thinking processes important to make appropriate conclusions in adulthood. The writers of the Cardinal Ideas held an opposing see. They believed that only by means of sensible rote competencies and values could the “appropriate mindset”, “sterling character”, and “appropriate principles” promise the appropriate workings of adulthood. (Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education, Chapters I – XX)
The outcomes of the Cardinal Ideas are imbedded in the techniques of schooling currently. It is the competencies and education that a student garners by the conclude of Secondary School which are of most importance not the improvement of his or her independence of considered. Presented the turbulent moments of currently, it is debatable if the Cardinal Ideas of ninety a long time in the past can ensure an American culture that is secure and sustainable tomorrow.
Elliot, C. W. (1893). Report of the Committee of 10. Retrieved Oct 23, 2007 from http://tmh.floonet.internet/textbooks/commorften/mainrpt.html
National Training Affiliation. (1918) Cardinal Ideas of Secondary Education.Retrieved Oct 23, 2007 from
Ravitch, D. (2000). Still left Again, A Century of Battles Above School Reform. New York:Simon & Schuster.
Taylor, J. M. (1894). The Report of the Committee of 10. The School Evaluate two(four), 193-199. Retrieved Oct 23, 2007 from http://www.jstor.org/journals/ucpress.html.